1713 Treaty of Utrecht

Background – 1710 League of Peace Delegation

Four Mohawk Kings painted by Jan Verelst, 1710. From left to right:
Etow Oh KoamSa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth TowHo Nee Yeath Taw No Row and Tee Yee Ho Ga Row.
(National Archives of Canada – Artist: Jan Verelst)

4 kings

1710 League of Peace (5 Nations) Delegation of Chiefs to Queen Anne

Four Chiefs representing the League of Great Peace (5 Nations Confederacy) traveled to Great Britain in order to meet with their ally, Queen Anne in 1710 as part of a diplomatic visit organised by Pieter Schuyler, mayor of Albany, New York. The Chiefs were received in London as diplomats, being transported through the streets of the city in Royal carriages, and received by Queen Anne at the Court of St. James Palace.

The three Mohawk chiefs were: Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow of the Bear Clan, called King of Maguas, with the Christian name Peter Brant, grandfather of Joseph Brant; Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row of the Wolf Clan, called King of Canajoharie (“Great Boiling Pot”), or John of Canajoharie; and Tee Yee Ho Ga Row, meaning “Double Life”, of the Wolf Clan, also called Hendrick Tejonihokarawa or King Hendrick. The Mahican chief was Etow Oh Koam of the Turtle Clan.


The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701-13). The war resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II (d. 1700) had left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV (Felipe V of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms.

The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe V of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy. To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe V to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne.

The subjects of signatories to the treaties, became obligated to respect the jurisdiction of the Gayanerekowa and to neither molest, nor hinder people of the 5 Nations Confederacy including their cantons in order that peace and order prevail.  The map below illustrates the scope of land subject to the Gayanerekowa in 1713.

Map of 1713 League of Great Peace Territory  Founded by Ka-nyen-geh-ha-kah 5 Nation Confederacy

Map of 1713 League of Great Peace Territory
Founded by Ka-nyen-geh-ha-kah (Mohawks of the 5 Nation Confederacy)

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