1713 Treaty of Utrecht
Background – 1710 League of Peace Delegation
Four Mohawk Kings painted by Jan Verelst, 1710. From left to right:
Etow Oh Koam, Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row and Tee Yee Ho Ga Row.
(National Archives of Canada – Artist: Jan Verelst)
Four Chiefs representing the League of Great Peace (5 Nations Confederacy) traveled to Great Britain in order to meet with their ally, Queen Anne in 1710 as part of a diplomatic visit organised by Pieter Schuyler, mayor of Albany, New York. The Chiefs were received in London as diplomats, being transported through the streets of the city in Royal carriages, and received by Queen Anne at the Court of St. James Palace.
The three Mohawk chiefs were: Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow of the Bear Clan, called King of Maguas, with the Christian name Peter Brant, grandfather of Joseph Brant; Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row of the Wolf Clan, called King of Canajoharie (“Great Boiling Pot”), or John of Canajoharie; and Tee Yee Ho Ga Row, meaning “Double Life”, of the Wolf Clan, also called Hendrick Tejonihokarawa or King Hendrick. The Mahican chief was Etow Oh Koam of the Turtle Clan.
The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701-13). The war resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II (d. 1700) had left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV (Felipe V of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms.
The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe V of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy. To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe V to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne.
The subjects of signatories to the treaties, became obligated to respect the jurisdiction of the Gayanerekowa and to neither molest, nor hinder people of the 5 Nations Confederacy including their cantons in order that peace and order prevail. The map below illustrates the scope of land subject to the Gayanerekowa in 1713.
“The Great Good”
Terms of its component elements:
Health & Reason
Soundness of Body
& Sanity of Mind
Equal – Justice & Peace
& Sanity of Mind
Equal – Justice & Peace
Essential World News / Film
Onkwehon:we / Indigenous
An “Act of Genocide” Indian Residential Schools in Canada & Crimes Against Humanity Concealed – Revealed
The Honourable Justice Murray Sinclair was appointed the Chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada in June, 2008. Justice Sinclair pointed out that the United Nations’ definition of genocide includes forcibly transferring children of a group to another group based on race.
He argued that in the past, Canada was careful to exclude its residential school policies from being scrutinized under this definition.
“But the reality is that to take children away from their families and place them in another group in society for the purpose of racial indoctrination was and is an act of genocide, and it occurs all around the world.” – Justice Sinclair
“Systemic Racism: Serious Crisis” – Former Supreme Court of Canada justice Frank Iacobucci
‘Systemic racism’ toward Onkwehon:we (indigenous) people in justice system is outlined in a stinging 2013 report by Former Supreme Court Justice Frank Iacobucci.
“I have called it a crisis, a serious crisis. And I am not an alarmist. We are talking about the lives and liberties of people. I don’t know if you can get more of an important issue subject than that.
... If we don’t take hold of this seriously, we are going to, I think be perpetrators, unwittingly, of personal tragedies here.
... We can’t continue to treat First Nations as objects. We have to be partners. I don’t care if it is in the justice system or economic development. " - Former Supreme Court of Canada justice Frank Iacobucci
Learn Your Rights through Community Media
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- Canada: First Nations University Of Canada - Faculty Of Science - Indigenous Perspective
- Philippines: Ifugao Tribe Member Elected As Indigenous Peoples Representative To The Sangguniang Bayan
- Switzerland: Call For Applications - Indigenous Fellowship - International Disability Alliance 2013
- Greenland And Denmark: Agenda Item 3 - World Conference On Indigenous Peoples - UN EMRIP 6th Session
- Sonora: Communiqué From The CCRI-CG Of The EZLN And The National Indigenous Congress In Solidarity With The Yaqui Tribe
- Australia: Agenda Item 3 - World Conference On Indigenous Peoples - UN EMRIP 6th Session
- Burma: Upper Burma Court Sentences Three Human Rights Defenders To Long-Term Imprisonment; Guards Intimidate Lawyer
- Quebec: Canadian Aboriginal Group Will Not Back Down In Fight Against Rio Tinto's IOC - Buyer Beware - Warning To Potential Purchasers Of Rio Tinto's IOC
- Mongolia: Mongolian Herders Submit Complaint To European Public Bank
- Bangladesh: Agenda Item 5 - Study On The Access To Justice In The Promotion And Protection Of The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples - UN EMRIP 6th Session
- Ecuador: A Future For Amazonia - Randy Borman And Cofán Environmental Politics
- Belize: Maya People Return To Supreme Court For Protection
- Philippines: Groups Condemn Ambush Of B’laan Leader And Member In Minerals-Rich Davao Del Sur
- Sweden: Saami Communities Attend Beowulf’s AGM In London
- Australia: Still Supporting Yolngu In Their Fight For Rights
- Newfoundland: Canada And The Federation Of Newfoundland Indians Reach Agreement On Resolution Of Issues Related To Enrolment In The Qalipu Mi'kmaq First Nation
- Argentina: Native People’s Land Demands Gain Visibility In Argentina
- British Columbia: Nuu-Chah-Nulth Nations Applaud B.C. Appeal Court Decision
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- Western Australia: Native Title Agreement Reached In The Kimberley - Gooniyandi People Traditional Land Recognized In Fitzroy Valley
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- Indonesia: Indonesian President Makes Commitment To Recognize Indigenous Peoples' Collective Rights To Their Territories
- Mexico: Locals Risk Their Lives Fighting Mining In Mexico
- Brazil: Resurgence Of Indigenous Identity In The Crossfire In Brazil
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- Montana: Montana’s Highest Court Clears Way For Return Of Wild Bison Bison Transfer To Fort Belknap Tribes To Proceed
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- British Columbia: The Stó:lō People Reject Canada And BC Decision To Give Exclusive Title Of 5 Mile Fishery To Yale First Nation
- International: Millennium Development Goals Fund Boosts Food Security
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Haldimand Territory Calls for Unity by Elders
April 11, 2013: U.N. Ambassador in Geneva Admits 3 Human Rights Rapporteurs’ Visits to Canada Were Finally Approved
During Canada’s appearance in Geneva before the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review, Canada’s Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva, Elissa Golberg, was asked by delegates from Chile why UN Special Rapporteurs had not been granted access to investigate, monitor and assess Canada as their mandates require.
The council was told that the three requests to visit Canada as part of the UN’s monitoring and assessment of international human rights had recently been approved. Finally, Special Rapporteurs who are independent experts appointed by the UN’s Human Rights Council to examine and report back on a country’ situation or a specific human rights theme.
May 16 Press Release
Former Canadian Military Officer: Onkwehon:we “Insurgency”
Haldimand Pledge April 7, 1779:
Words of Wisdom
Our Struggle – The Double-standard – Apartheid in Canada
Historical Agenda of Ethnic Cleansing in Canada
House of Commons May 11th, 1914
Ka-nyen-geh-ha-kah of Grand River assert that:
- The system was never sovereign - Two Row Times - tworowtimes.com/opinions/lette… via @tworowtimes 3 years ago