Mohawk Workers – Evidence of Documented Finds
Walton’s Stage 3 Site-Specific Archaeological Assessment
(Obtained & Edited by the Mohawk Investigations Bureau)
The Tutelo land in question was incorporated into the Stewart and Ruggles Tract, which was unlawfully “patented” by the Crown in 1835. The Tutela Heights site is located on land “purchased” by Richard Brooks and unlawfully transferred. It belongs under the Mohawks’ Haldimand, territory and was reclaimed on September 19, 2012 by the Mohawk Workers pursuant to August 30 Lawful Notices of Intent / Cease & Desist and September 15 Notices & Summons issued and delivered to Walton Executives Child, Plastaris & Doherty.
“The lands along the Grand River containing the study area originally formed part of the territory occupied by the Tutelo people – a small group of Siouan natives who dispersed throughout the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. The tribe is said to have settled originally the areas of West Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina, and is currently located mainly in central Pennsylvania in the Shamokin coal region. They were gradually forced off of their ancestral lands and by 1753 they had migrated northwards into New York State where they were adopted as part of the Cayuga tribe. A small band of the Tutelos came into Upper Canada as Loyalists with the Mohawks and their allies.
A census of the natives along the Grand River showed that there were 55 “Upper Tootalies” and 19 “Lower Tootalies” settled here in 1785. An “Indian Census” from 1810 showed 53 Upper and 29 Lower “Tootelies.” In 1811, the numbers increased to 64 Upper and 41 Lower Tutelos. In June 1813, it is known that 16 “Tutaleys” were present at the Battle of Beaverdams, although Captain Kerr only noted four Tutelos at Beaverdams in his official return. A map of Brantford, compiled by the Reverend Robert Lugger in February 1828, showed the “Upper Cayugas” settled here at a place called “Tatulis Heights.” It is reported that the Tutelos were “nearly exterminated in an epidemic of Asiatic cholera in 1832.” By 1843, the “Upper Cayuga village” was described as “now deserted” and the total population of Tutelos was a mere 40 “included in the Upper Cayuga return.” The Tutelo longhouse or council house is said to have once stood “opposite the later site of the Bell Homestead and a few yards to the southwest,” and that a Tutelo burial ground was located “in a sand knoll a few hundred yards southeast of the homestead”
During the Stage 3 archaeological excavation 2,702 artifacts were discovered and removed from the Tutela Heights site over the 11 days between November 4, 2010 and November 18, 2010 by a Walton Contractor. 546 artifacts were taken from a single 100 m by 90 m area where as many as 136 artifacts were taken from within a single square metre unit.
Artifacts included early ceramics such as creamware and pearlware, and later ceramics including ironstone. Fragments of wood and bone were also taken. Eight hand-wrought nails that pre-date the 1830s, 40 machine cut nails that date to between 1830 and 1900, four wire nails that post-date the 1900s were also taken.
“Furnishings taken consisted of one drawer handle, one figurine, 12 lamp chimney fragments, one light bulb base, and three pieces of table lamp glass. Lamp chimney fragments became common on EuroCanadian sites in the later years of the nineteenth century as the dropping price of kerosene made glass lamps more affordable than candles.
Ceramics are useful tools for dating archaeological sites because of the historical progression of types in industrial-era ceramic production. Much of the innovation that took place in the late eighteenth century English ceramic industry resulted from the competition with the imported porcelain market from continental Europe and China. Thus in the 1740s, the English potters began experimenting with two new types of ceramics: a refined cream-coloured earthenware and a white saltglazed stoneware. White salt-glazed stoneware, produced by casting salt into the kiln at peak temperature, was a standard product between 1740 and 1760. The lightweight cream-coloured earthenware was produced as early as 1740 by Enoch Booth but was perfected by Josiah Wedgwood in 1762 and quickly became attractive and popular as a status ware. As the name might suggest, creamware is creamy in colour due to the lead glaze applied to the vessels. The creamware glaze lightened in colour during the early nineteenth century.
Creamware was originally imported into Ontario alongside white salt-glazed stoneware but by 1800 creamware was the consumer favourite. While creamware continued to be imported until the 1830s, its popularity declined significantly in favour of pearlware.”
In total, there are 456 faunal (organic) artifacts taken. These included three bird bones, 286 mammal bones, 21 shells, and 146 ‘unidentified’ bones.
103 artifacts in the personal class were taken. These include one brass brooch, three brass buttons, one single-holed thermally altered bone backing for a metal button, one iron button, one dress hook, and 96 smoking pipe fragments. The brass brooch has an imperial insignia of the crown with thistle, rose and shamrock and a “V” prominently in the centre, possibly representing Queen Victoria who ruled 1837 to 1901 and provides a nice terminus post quem for the site. One of the pipe stem fragments has partial impressed lettering of “WHITE” and “_LASGOW” suggesting that this is a White/Glasgow pipe that was produced between 1805 and 1955.
Paleo-Indians (Paleoindians) or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the American continents during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix “paleo” comes from the Greek adjective palaios (παλαιός) meaning “old.” The term Paleo-Indians applies specifically to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term Paleolithic.
Evidence suggests big-game hunters crossed the Bering Strait from Asia (Eurasia) into North America over a land and ice bridge (Beringia), that existed between 45,000 BCE–12,000 BCE (47,000 – 14,000 years ago). Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far intoAlaska. From 16,500 BCE – 13,500 BCE (18,500 – 15,500 years ago), ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America. This allowed animals, followed by humans, to migrate south into the interior. The people went on foot or used primitive boats along the coastline. The precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World are subject to ongoing debate.
Stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Crafted lithic flaked tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods. Scientific evidence links indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to North Asian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, and in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. Between 8000 BCE – 7000 BCE (10,000 – 9,000 years ago) the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in a more sedentary lifestyle.